In this paper, we explore three scenarios for the future of the European Union, using history and
reasoned imagination as guides. Our three scenarios are rooted in European contemporary
challenges but draw on three ages that have shaped what Europe has become. Scenario 1 harks back
to Antiquity (“the Empty Empire”), scenario 2 to the Middle Age (“Return of the City-states”) and
scenario 3 to the Renaissance (“Renascent Europe”).