ENERGY FUTURES The role of research and technological development

There are different scientific methods to look to the future in the energy sector, including
mathematical models, expert-based Delphi surveys and the back-casting approach. This
latter is a mix of mathematical and human inputs which looks at how a certain objective
can be attained rather than what is likely to happen in the future.
Whatever the studies used, we see similar messages emerging: in 2050 almost three quarters of the
world’s energy supply will still come from fossil fuels; energy demand and CO2 emissions will more

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